The paleolithic diet is a diet based on the foods' ancient ancestors might likely have eaten, such as meat, nuts and berries, and excludes food to which they had not yet become familiar, like dairy. The Paleolithic era was a period lasting around 2.5 million years that ended about 10,000 years ago with the advent of farming. It was characterized by the use of flint, stone, and bone tools, hunting, fishing, and the gathering of plant foods.
The diet is based on the premise that Paleolithic humans evolved nutritional needs specific to the foods available at that time, and that the nutritional needs of modern humans remain best adapted to the diet of their Paleolithic ancestors. Proponents argue that this is because modern human metabolism has been unable to adapt fast enough to handle many of the foods that have become available since the advent of agriculture. Thus, modern humans are said to be maladapted to eating foods such as grain, legumes, and dairy, and in particular the high-calorie processed foods that are a staple of most modern diets. Proponents claim that modern humans' inability to properly metabolize these comparatively new types of food has led to modern-day problems such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes. They claim that followers of the Paleolithic diet may enjoy a longer, healthier, more active life.
For more information about Paleo Diets: http://blog.foodnetwork.com/healthyeats/2010/06/03/diet-101-the-paleo-diet/
Critics of the Paleolithic diet have raised a number of objections, including that paleolithic humans did eat grains and legumes, that humans are much more nutritionally flexible than Paleolithic advocates claim, that Paleolithic humans were not genetically adapted to specific local diets, that the Paleolithic period was extremely long and saw a variety of forms of human sustenance, or that little is known for certain about what Paleolithic humans ate.
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