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How Hot Can It Get?

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10:03   |   Sep 29, 2012

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How Hot Can It Get?
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  • Hey, Vsauce.
  • Michael here. And my tea is quite hot, but it's not the hottest thing in the
  • universe.
  • So what is? I mean, we know that there is an absolute zero,
  • but is there an absolute hot? A point at which something is so hot
  • it can't get any hotter. Well to find out, let's begin
  • with the human body. Your internal temperature
  • is not constant. 37 degrees, 98.6.
  • Sure. But those are averages. Your body's internal temperature fluctuates
  • by about one degree Fahrenheit -
  • half a degree Celsius - throughout the day in a cycle.
  • Assuming you sleep at night, at 4:30 in the morning
  • your body reaches its coolest natural healthy temperature.
  • And at 7 p.m. it reaches its highest.
  • But a dangerous fever is not good.
  • 108 degrees Fahrenheit is almost always
  • lethal. The highest recorded air temperature across
  • all of Earth has happened four times in Death
  • Valley, where it has reached 129
  • degrees Fahrenheit. 180 degrees Fahrenheit is the recommended
  • temperature for water
  • when brewing coffee. And at 210 degrees Fahrenheit,
  • a cake is done.
  • 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit is the temperature of lava
  • fresh outta the ground. But come on. Make your own lava
  • like Green Science Pro. This guy uses Fresnel lenses to focus the sun's
  • energy onto whatever he wants. This is a small piece of obsidian,
  • volcanic glass, which he can melt into actual lava
  • right in his backyard. Keep in mind that the Sun is having that effect
  • even though it is 93 million miles away from
  • Earth. Right up on the surface of the Sun is a different story.
  • The surface clocks in at 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit,
  • but the centre, where fusion occurs, is ridiculous.
  • Temperatures there reach 28
  • million degrees Fahrenheit, which is also known
  • as 15 million Kelvin. The Kelvin scale
  • has units that are the same size as a Celsius degree,
  • but it's an absolute scale, where 0 is
  • absolute zero. When matter reaches temperatures as high as those found in
  • the centre of the Sun,
  • an enormous amount of energy is radiated
  • away. If you were to heat only the head
  • of a pin to the temperature of the centre of the Sun,
  • it would kill any person within 1,000 miles of it.
  • Speaking of which, the energy emitted by an object
  • often tells us a lot about the temperature
  • of that object. Any object over absolute zero
  • emits some form of electromagnetic radiation.
  • You and me, we don't glow visibly, but we do emit
  • infrared light. We can't see it, but infrared cameras
  • can. WBT has great videos
  • and here he is, hiding inside an opaque black
  • trash bag. Now, we can't see him, but his body is
  • infra-redly glowing through it. If you want something to be the right
  • temperature to glow in the
  • visible spectrum, you'll have to reach the Draper point,
  • about 798 Kalvin. At this point almost any object
  • will begin to glow a dead red.
  • We can calculate the expected wavelength of radiation
  • coming off of an object because of its temperature and that wavelength
  • gets smaller and smaller the hotter and hotter the object gets.
  • It goes from radio waves to microwaves up through infrared divisible,
  • all the way to x-rays and gamma-rays, which are created in the middle
  • of our Sun. At temperatures as hot as the Sun,
  • matter exists in a fourth state. Not solid, not liquid, not gas,
  • but instead, a state where the electrons wander away from the nuclei
  • plasma. If you've watched my temperature lean back you know that you could make
  • plasma by microwaving fire
  • But don't do it. Besides, our Sun isn't even close to being the hottest thing in
  • the universe.
  • I mean, sure, 15 million Kelvin is pretty incredible,
  • but the peak temperature reached during a thermonuclear explosion
  • is 350 million
  • Kelvin, which hardly counts, because the temperature is achieved
  • so briefly. But inside the core of a star,
  • 8 times larger than our Sun,
  • on the last day of its life, as it collapses in on itself,
  • you would reach a temperature of 3
  • billion Kelvin. Or if you wanna be cool,
  • 3 GigaKelvin. But let's get hotter.
  • At 1 TeraKelvin, things get weird.
  • Remember that plasma we were talking about that the Sun is made of?
  • Well, at 1 TeraKelvin, the electrons aren't the only thing that wander away.
  • The hedrons themselves, the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  • melt into quirks and gluons,
  • a sort of soup. But how hot
  • is a TeraKelvin? Frighteningly hot.
  • There's a star named WR
  • 104, about 8,000 light years away from us.
  • Its mass is the equivalent of 25
  • of our Suns, and when it dies,
  • when it collapses, its internal temperature will be so great
  • that the energy emitted, the gamma radiation it flings out into space
  • will be stronger than the entire amount of energy our Sun
  • will ever create in its entire lifetime.
  • Gamma ray bursts are quite narrow,
  • so Earth is most likely safe, but what if it wasn't?
  • Well, when WR 104 collapses,
  • even though Earth is 4,702 trillion miles away,
  • the energy it releases
  • would still be bad news. Exposure for 10 seconds
  • would mean losing a quarter of Earth's ozone layer,
  • resulting in mass extinction, food chain depletion
  • and starvation
  • from 8,000 light years away. Closer to home,
  • right here on earth in Switzerland, scientists have been able to smash
  • protons
  • into nuclei, resulting in temperatures much
  • larger than 1 TeraKelvin. They've been able to reach the
  • 2 to 13 ExaKelvin range.
  • But we are okay, because those temperatures last
  • for an incredibly brief moment and only involve a small number
  • of particles. Remember how we could calculate the wavelength of the
  • radiation emitted by an object based on its temperature?
  • Well, if an object were to reach a temperature
  • of 1.41 times 10 to the 32
  • Kelvin, the radiation it would admit would have a wavelength of 1.616
  • times 10 to the -26th nano meters,
  • which is tiny.
  • Like so tiny, it actually has a special name.
  • It is the Planck distance, which according to quantum mechanics
  • is the shortest distance possible in our universe.
  • Okay, well what if we added
  • even more energy? Wouldn't the wavelength get smaller? It's supposed to,
  • but yet it can't. This is where we've got a problem.
  • Above 1.41 times 10 to 32 Kelvin,
  • the Planck temperature, our theories don't work.
  • The object would become hotter than
  • temperature. It would be so hot
  • that what it is would not be considered a
  • temperature. Theoretically, there is no limit to the amount of energy we could
  • keep
  • adding into the system. We just don't know what would happen
  • if it got hotter than the Planck temperature. Classically,
  • you could argue that that much energy in one place would instantly cause a black
  • hole to form.
  • And a black hole formed from energy has a special name -
  • a Kugelblitz. So basically, what I'm trying to say
  • is when you want to tell someone you like that you think they are
  • hot, so hot that not even science can understand it,
  • just call them a Kugelblitz. Finally,
  • here is something fun. The Sun
  • is about 4.7 billion years old, about halfway through its life cycle
  • and so far it has burned 100
  • Earths worth
  • of fuel, which sounds like a lot, but the Sun
  • is the size of 300,000 Earths.
  • Because of that discrepancy, you can have a lot of mathematical fun comparing
  • your energy output to the Sun's. The Sun is way hotter than us
  • and it puts out way more energy than us. Bad Astronomy had a lot of fun with this one
  • and although it doesn't really mean anything, it is technically true,
  • because of the Sun's enormous size, that one
  • cubic centimeter of human puts out more
  • energy than an average cubic centimetre of
  • the Sun. Which should make you feel
  • quite warm inside.
  • И, как всегда, спасибо за смотрящий. [I, kak vsegda , spasibo za smotryashchiy.] [And as always, thanks for watching.]

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Description

TEMPERATURES!
Links to everything:

http://www.twitter.com/tweetsauce
http://www.facebook.com/VsauceGaming

Thanks to http://www.youtube.com/minutephysics
and
http://www.youtube.com/user/phdcomics
for their guidance on this video!

All music (except for the classical in the beginning) by Jake Chudnow: http://www.soundcloud.com/JakeChudnow

Human body temperature: http://antranik.org/regulation-of-body-temperature/

GreenPowerScience: /watch?v=svAPyyUJUCo

wbeaty's videos: http://www.youtube.com/user/wbeaty/videos?view=0

sun and pinhead fact is from this book: http://www.amazon.com/The-Universe-Teacup-Mathematics-Beauty/dp/0151003238

PLASMA IN MICROWAVE inside my temperature leanback: /watch?v=HVb7XzTbl2k&list=PL5B111EE10D69CD6E

Calculate wavelength based on temperature: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/wien.html

WR 104: http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/badastronomy/2008/03/03/wr-104-a-nearby-gamma-ray-burst/

These are great discussions of absolute hot if you want to read more:

http://forums.xkcd.com/viewtopic.php?f=18&t=39799
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-highest-possible-temperature.htm
http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=384571&page=2
http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=9467.0

Temperature wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature

kugelblitz: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kugelblitz_(astrophysics)

Are you brighter than the sun?: http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/badastronomy/2009/12/30/are-humans-brighter-then-the-sun/

BONUS:

check out the Hagedorn temperature: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagedorn_temperature

****Awesome Russian Guest Stars****

sashok74 http://www.youtube.com/user/sashok74
PolinaRepik http://www.youtube.com/user/PolinaRepik
blushsupreme http://www.youtube.com/user/blushsupreme
katsiaryna00 http://www.youtube.com/user/katsiaryna00
OnlyFightingRu http://www.youtube.com/user/OnlyFightingRu
MWaytv http://www.youtube.com/user/MWaytv
10ELISS http://www.youtube.com/user/10ELISS
KiselevSash http://www.youtube.com/user/KiselevSash
NinaNonsimple http://www.youtube.com/user/NinaNonsimple
pymathru http://www.youtube.com/user/pymathru
energytima http://www.youtube.com/user/energytima

And also negative ABSOLUTE temperatures: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20827893.500-how-to-create-temperatures-below-absolute-zero.html

http://cryo.gsfc.nasa.gov/introduction/neg_Kelvin.html

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