# A simple guide to electronic components.

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38:06   |   Mar 15, 2016

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• This video is just the basics of electronic components, what they look like and what they actually do - and how they work in fact
• So let's start with one of the most common, the one that I just picked up there the resistor
• So this is a one thousand Ohm resistor
• I can tell that from the color bands on it, and we'll look at that later on how the color bands are interpreted
• However the function of a resistor if I use the water analogy because the water analogy is very good
• If you have a pipe
• With water flowing through it and part of that pipe is narrowed down to a section
• Then that will restrict the flow of water through that pipe
• Say for instance the main water pipe coming into the house. If you put a very thin
• Pipe in line with that, even a fairly short one then it would really
• Restrict the flow of water coming in because the water would want to flow through quite quickly
• But it would be forced in through this narrow channel and the resistance
• Posed by that narrow channel would limit the water flow in the same way that a resistor
• Does exactly the same to electricity it limits the flow of electricity?
• the flow of Current and
• In this case with the water analogy the pressure of the water
• equals the voltage and it's quite interesting that the chinese sometimes refer to the voltage as pressure and it is that's exactly what it is and
• the
• flow of the water
• equals the current
• So the higher the flow the higher the current
• Now the construction of a resistor is usually in the case of these ones
• this is a carbon film resistor and
• You get metal film, Carbon film, wire wound but one of the most common is just carbon film or the metal film and they have
• a little ceramic Tube
• which is coated with either the metallized coating or a carbon coating up to a
• Specific thickness and the thicker the carbon coating on it and the the type of the composition they're putting on it
• the more conductive it will be but then they can fine-tune that they actually cut a spiral round it and
• that creates a long thin path of the carbon and
• That increases the value of the resistance and once they've done that they put a metal cap in the end
• with the leads coming off and they dip it in a sort of....
• I suppose it's a lacquer really and
• Typically with the carbon film resistors which are my favourite, they're one of the easiest to read it'll be this sort of beige coloured
• I'm not sure. What would you call that color? I've never really thought about that
• Beige let's call it beige it's sort of rich beige and the metal film
• Resistors, which I don't like because they're usually blue and they're really hard to read. The blue color makes the color bands....
• It's very.... it makes it easy to mix colors like orange and brown because they've got such a dark background
• But I'll go into those colors afterwards, so that's the function of a resistor
• I'm not going to go into too much at the moment because at the end of the video
• I'll cover things like ohm's law, but I don't want to bore the pants off you so let's move on to capacitors.
• Oh - I should I should continue and say about the resistors the function of resistor is
• To limit the current flow so say for instance you had
• An led you wanted an led to light from a battery if you connected the led straight across the battery it would burn the led out
• in most instances
• but if you put a resistor
• in series with the
• let's just draw as a physical Led and you hook across the plus 12 volts and
• zero Volts
• Then by choosing the resistor value you can actually limit the current to the correct value of the led they're also used for things like
• time delays you might have a
• Resistor charging up a capacitor
• you know it trickles the current into it until the voltage reaches a certain level and then
• that could be used as a timing function, and you also get variable resistors where effectively it's a
• Carbon track
• Connected at both ends are only really you only need to use a connector one end and with a wiper
• that actually wipes around that track so you know depending on its position that will vary the resistance, so
• Let's move on to capacitor now
• Because they're quite interesting
• so a capacitor in its most basic form is a layer of insulating material with a
• conductive surface on each side and
• The best way to describe a capacitor in the water flow theory is a chamber
• with a
• diaphragm
• in it that stops the water flowing directly through and
• That diaphragm can flex a certain amount in either direction
• So say for instance, you've connected it across a battery
• The positive charge would flow in at this side, and it would cause it to flex over to the negative side
• It doesn't actually physically work like this
• but this is a good way to describe it and
• if you reverse the polarity then that charge that amount that filled up would then be pushed out the other side and
• it would flex the other way and this allows capacitors to be used to basically hold a charge of electricity or
• in the case of the AC capacitors that you often see me using these in my led lamps that
• diaphragm it means that on the AC
• on each half wave when the polarity swaps that will let through a small amount of energy the electrons will flow back and
• forth through it, but not just pass right through like a short circuit
• So to describe a capacitor to actually show you what a capacitor does let's make one. So I've got a bit of a
• cardboard here. This is a standard six by four photo a piece of photo material and
• I've got two bits of metalized films, so let's say stick the metalized film on either side, so
• We've got a metal electrode, and I'm sticking it onto
• the insulator the dielectric and
• This is old aluminium tape I think that don't seem to stick very well
• But that's alright. It will do what we need to do and
• Then the other side of this I'll stick the other bit of tape, and that's the other electrode
• and
• This is the physical construction. That's used throughout all capacitors
• They're all pretty much like this, but not using cardboard and aluminium foil
• So let's get that pretty much as close to the other one alignment as possible
• and
• the actual the two factors determine the capacitance here are the area of metallization that's in parallel with other one and
• How thick the insulator is is in between them you think you know this cards. It's you know
• it's very thin so it's going to be quite a
• You know it's going to be a Modestly high-value capacitance, but that's not true
• This is not going to be a high value of capacitance at all so let's put this round
• let's be optimistic and say 200 Nano Farad and
• I'll connect it one side and the other side and
• The capacitance is actually... Oops! I'm not making contact I'm
• connecting on to the adhesive side here my capacitor measures
• One point. Oh that's terrible isn't it it's one point eight Nano farad. It's not very high at all and
• if I was to cut this in half, so the actual to prove that the area of the
• foil
• affects the capacitance if I get a pair of scissors
• Scissors, and I cut this in half right now
• So it's one point eight three if I cut that in half
• It's halved the capacitance. It's now point eight, and if I cut that again in half, it'll go down to about point four
• Which it has so that's basically how the capacitor works. It's basically an insulator the two metal plates on either side and
• the area of the metallization and the thinness of the
• separator is what Determines the capacitance and
• to get the value of capacitance up the
• it means that in reality for components like this little hundred keep in mind that I managed
• what was that just a couple of nano farad this one is rated 100 Nano farad and
• If you look at things like this one this is an electrolytic capacitor which is rated
• 470 Micro Farad, which is a massive capacitance and to achieve that ... let's get the notepad back in again
• To achieve the higher capacitance they often make the capacitors multi-layer, so this is something
• I just printed out, I designed on the computer as a printed circuit board design sort of layout
• But I just did it as a sort of graphic and if you can imagine that the blue is layers of insulation
• in the ceramic capacitors and these are metallized sort of plates then by
• alternating the
• pole
• sort of creating a comb of them with insulators and then putting a
• Metallization down the end to connect them all together you can create
• Quite a large capacitance in a small area just by making a multi-story capacitor
• so to speak and
• That's still the layers of insulation in these it's still going to be super thin you'd need a microscope probably to see all the layers
• where you are going for a
• High voltage capacitor the size has to go up these are also 100 Nano farad. So you look at this one. It's 109 fire
• It's really small, but it's a low voltage one
• when you're increasing the voltage you have to increase the thickness of the dielectric the insulation between them and
• To make this type of capacitor these are metallized film capacitors and it's a film that's metallized
• on one side and they take two strips of it, and they basically sandwich them together and
• the plastic aspect of it is the insulator and the metallization is the electrode and
• to fit a lot in a small area they then actually just
• spiral the take a big long strip and they spiral it round into a small area, and that's what creates the sort of larger area and
• The thickness of the plastic film itself will Determine the voltage rating
• This is a ceramic disc capacitor usually quite low values. It's usually one of the simplest and it usually is just a disc of
• Ceramic with a conductive layer on both sides and then an electrode that just comes across and comes off
• and then it's dipped in insulation, but you think that even this one this one is rated 10 nano farad
• and
• it's rated  volts, but
• To get that 10 nano farad the installation must be really really thin in the inside. I've never actually opened one of these up
• Let's open one of them up right now and take a look.
• Ohh. Not the thing to do with your snips
• That is so it really is wafer thin in there. It's so thin that most of the thickness of that is the protective coating
• That is super thin in there. I don't know if you can even see that it just looks like a line
• So electrolytic capacitors are one of the more exciting capacitors, and I don't mean that in a good way
• the electrolytic capacitors to
• achieve such a high capacitance they contain a liquid electrolyte and
• they have a
• a very thin foil inside and
• the foil to create an
• extremely thin insulator they form an oxide layer on the aluminum foil in there and
• That means it really is like Micron thick which means that they can get a very high capacitance in a small area, but to couple
• onto that surface. They have to use a liquid [electrolyte] which then because ... if you looked at the
• Foil it would look all pitted and mottled with that oxide coating so to get a good coupling
• They use a liquid that just fills in those gaps
• and that's one of the downsides of well one of many of the downsides of the electrolytic capacitors because traditionally and
• all the old say for instance, all the old video games from the 80s
• Tend to suffer problems after a while with what's called drying of the electrolytics, so they still measure the correct capacitance
• but their
• equivalent of resistance the resistance to current flow through them changes it increases and
• What that means is that
• They stop doing their job properly. When you get the large values like this. They're usually used to
• smooth ripple so say for instance you had the output from the mains was rectified and you had a big peaky, Sort of like the
• The AC full wave rectified AC waveform. Which is like the two sides of a sine wave
• then by putting this across that it then just reduces it to a very slight ripple and a nice smooth DC voltage and
• as that
• Capacitor dries out over time that ripple will get bigger, and it ultimately starts causing problems when it dips down
• So low that the electronics can't sustain normal operation, and that's when you have to change capacitors
• However, that's a more of an issue with Modern electronics because whereas in the old days the capacitors only had to
• deal with a 100 Hertz or 120 Hertz, just mains frequency rectified
• Nowadays the capacitors have to deal with the output from switch mode power supplies
• which is like thousands of Hertz tens of thousands of hertz and it means that they actually heat up and
• they
• Dissipate more energy. They're just put under a lot more stress, and if you look at the top of this one
• you'll see this little cross on it, and that's a safety vent because
• When these fail what actually happens is that oxide coating is
• Can be perforated and that's really common if you accidentally connect them in reverse because it relies in the polarity to keep that
• Oxide coating intact when you connect them in reverse that fails, and then suddenly you've basically got this
• Liquid filled thing just connected across the power supply with no current limiting it just basically it turns into a sort of resistor and it boils
• the electrolyte and when that happens the top will either sort of if you looked at it from the side bulge up and
• but if it goes too far that x that's etched on to the Top will
• split open and it will vent out the top and
• the other option there if it doesn't do that is sometimes it blows the whole can off and
• it just makes a mess it gives out a vapor of the electrolyte, which is slightly caustic and it
• Can unravel the foil across the room it can go off with enough Force to actually cause injury if it hits you
• So you have to be kind of careful with electrolytic capacitors?
• so erm...
• What have we covered? Let's look at diodes now
• Diodes come in various flavors. They are used for various functions you get signal diodes rectifier diodes and light emitting diodes
• The function of a diode is to allow current to flow in One direction, but not the other
• So the symbol for a diode. oh, I didn't mention the symbol for a capacitor was
• that
• basically representing the two metal plates with an air gap in between and in the case the electrolytic the
• That has the positive and negative are marked with
• The positive being the sort of just the empty box and the negative being the filled box just for the polarity reference
• However moving on to the diodes the symbol for a diode is very easy. It's very
• self-explanatory
• In the water equivalents thing it would be a pipe with a one-way valve in it
• So the water could only floor one way in this case you have the anode of the diode and the cathode spelt with a "K"
• I'm not sure why they do that there must be some reason. I've never really investigated that too much
• but
• Current will flow positive from the anode it will flow through the diode to the negative
• but if you try reversing the polarity very little current if any will flow through that diode in reverse and
• The main values you have to consider with diodes are the current you want to flow through them say for instance
• This is a one amp diode. That's rated to handle one amp flowing through
• something like a
• 1N4148 signal diode it's not designed for anything major. It's just designed for say
• rectifying small electrical signals, so it's only rated about 100 milliamps or so if that
• and
• The other Factor is the peak inverse voltage that's what voltage it will block coming in the wrong direction so supposing if you did connect
• Well this one is a 1N4007
• It's rated 1000 volts so that means that it will block 1000 volts going the wrong Direction
• But if you were to exceed that dramatically it will avalanche and it will start conducting the opposite Direction
• So you have to choose the correct diode for the job.
• This is a silicon diode which typically has a when it's forward passing current in the correct direction positive to negative
• it will typically have a voltage drop of about point 6 volts and
• Sometimes you know it depends on the voltage rating actually sometimes go up to one volt and it also depends on the current flowing through it
• you get Schottky diodes which have a much lower forward voltage of between 0.2 to 0.5 volts and in
• Cases of rectification that lower voltage actually makes them much more efficient
• the light emitting diode our
• Favorite type of Diode really is a diode junction
• That is optimized. It behaves like a normal diode, but when it's forward biased when the currents flowing through it,
• it emits light and
• the very first leds were actually
• Here are some here, they look just like the 1N4148 diodes these are actually leds
• they look just like ordinary glass diodes, but these are really vintage leds and
• when you pass current through
• In the correct direction a little red dot glows inside them
• it's very very dim but they were purely for printed circuit board indicators these days of course leds are used for illumination and have
• evolved greatly
• but
• one of the things you have to note with LEDs is they don't have a very high - because they're purely
• Optimized for emitting light they don't have a high reverse blocking voltage it's usually just about five volts
• So if you were to connect the polarity wrong in this and exceed about five volts then in the case of the
• white, blue, green leds that may damage them but with red ones they may end up just conducting but not lighting in the wrong direction
• but
• not suffer damage and
• so [em] let's say the other diodes zener diodes a
• zener Diode is a diode used for voltage regulation or
• Voltage to provide a voltage reference. It will act like a normal diode if you pass current through in the normal direction
• And it drops roughly about 0.6 volts, but you get them say for instance
• You want a 5 volt supply you get a 5 volt zener and when you
• apply a reverse current positive flowing down to negative. It will actually
• start conducting fairly Precisely at 5 volts
• So if you limit the current through the resistor
• That limits the current flow then the voltage will just sit round about 5 volts, and that's often used to provide
• Very simple power supplies and regulation in circuitry
• Let me think what's next. I think we may actually be going in the direction of the resistors again and.... Oh, let's look at transistors
• The world of transistors is huge. There are so many different types of transistors you get the small transistors you get the big transistors
• One of the most common ones I tend to use for small projects is just a little
• BC547 and the equivalent in America may roughly be a 2N3904
• and for simplicity
• I'm just going to show the basic NPN silicon transistor one of the oldest fashioned type transistors about and
• the symbol for it is this
• You get three pins
• and if you ever want to find out what the pinout for your
• Transistor is if you're not sure just go on google and the number in - like 2N3904
• Google it look for images, and you'll find pictures of the transistor with the actual pin
• Designations usually just printed under them it just makes it very easy to find data like that, so it's got three pins
• it's got the base pin. It's got the collector pin and the emitter pin in the case of an NPN transistor. It's
• usually switching something down to the ground rail the negative rail or the zero volt rail and
• it's used as an amplifier or switch. Supposing for instance you had a small tungsten lamp and you had say a
• a five volt supply.
• If you wanted to control that lamp if you want to turn the lamp on and off?
• But you only had very limited current available you can use a transistor and as soon as you exceed about 0.6 volts
• Because it's silicon again. That's the standard silicon junction voltage
• Above the ground Rail here the zero volts and a
• Modest current the Transistor typically has a value called a gain
• It's got a voltage rating a gain rating and a power dissipation rating there are lots of other ratings
• But really let's keep it simple and say you know because in most instances when you're using transistor
• It's going to be an NPN and it's going to be like this
• So say for instance you've got a gain of a hundred and that lamp's going to pass 100 milliamps to light fully
• Then you want to pass at least one milliamp
• Into the base here and that will then be multiplied by the gain of the transistor
• And it will switch the lamp so it's basically it's like a relay but it's got no moving parts
• And it's a little electronic switch. You know, it's just a really handy little thing
• and you can also use them in other formats like for voltage or current regulation things like that, but
• Just knowing the basic
• Operation that you know as soon as the the base has X-amount of current going in at roughly about 0.6
• Volts above the emitter here then the collector current will flow that's all you really need to know it's just to get started
• other types and resistors are things like the
• This one pictured here is a mosfet, and they're optimized for
• Switching really high loads, and that one is you know I chose the STP36NF06L
• for my rGB controllers because
• one of the nicest things about it is that it can handle a lot of current and it's on state resistance is so low that
• It doesn't impede the flow of current when it's turned on
• To such a level that's there
• It doesn't really get very warm you can pass you can use it to switch quite a modest current without having to worry even about
• applying the Heatsink to
• have a slight voltage drop across them and that would result in the heat dissipating, so
• Mosfets are much better for that they also have an extremely sensitive input
• But they generally require much higher voltage on their gate as they call it too actually
• Turn on but the current flow is virtually zero there. That's required to turn these on. It's a sort of
• capacitive effect, so
• They're quite amazing things you also get a hybrid that
• The Mosfets are not as robust as the traditional
• Let's see bipolar transistor like this one
• So you get a hybrid called an IGBT
• insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor, which is almost like a
• Traditional transistor with low gain but with one of these transistors on the front of it
• So it's very easy to turn it on and it
• Can switch massive currents and it's a really robust transistor, but you can find all that online if you actually look for it
• This is just a basically guide, so let's now look into things like Ohm's law. Ohm's law
• Which is just a couple of formulas - really easy and the best way to remember them is with a triangle
• "V" equals "I" times "R" where "I" let's
• Draw that out a wee bit wider and put what they actually are voltage
• Equals current, which is "I" times resistance which is ohms?
• He said drawing right out the triangle. Okay? That's all right and
• an application of this would be
• Supposing you had a 12 volt supply and you had three LEDs
• so there's the three LEDs and each one is dropping about two volts each and
• You want to choose a resistor that is going to limit the current
• So that's zero volts over there. You want to choose a resistor
• it's going to limit the current through these leds to ten milliamps, so
• Across the leds you've got six volts dropped
• across the resistor
• because it's 12 volts supply you get a six across the
• LEDs and you're going to have six across the resistor to drop
• So to work out the choice of the resistor value in Ohms
• You would
• R equals V over I
• Sorry, I should mention here V equals IxR but the reason I've drawn a triangle voltage equals current times resistance
• But if you want to reverse that formula resistance equals voltage divided by current and current equals voltage
• divided by resistance that's why I've drawn in the triangle here, so
• Voltage equals current times resistance and for the other ones you divide the one above it
• Much as you'd write it. If you're actually doing a
• Mathematical formula "R" equals "V" over "I" and "I" equals "V" over "R"
• It's just an easy way to remember how they relate to each other
• So to calculate the resistor equals voltage to be dropped over the current so it's six volts to be dropped six volts
• Divided by the current you want which is 0.01 amp which is ten milliamps
• so if you bring the calculator in for that I
• Don't need to use the calculator
• But I will use the calculator for this six volts divided by 0.01 (ten milliamps) equals
• 600 Ohms
• Six hundred Ohms now that's not a standard resistor value the six hundred Ohms.
• You would have to use the nearest standard value which might be 560 ohms or
• 680 Ohms
• and
• The other way this form that can be used is... if you are
• trying to measure how much current is flowing through some existing leds say four instance, you're measuring some led tape and
• You might find that actually putting an ammeter in series with it - because a voltage drop across the resistor in series with the leds is
• So low you might find an ammeter actually skews the reading a bit so say for instance
• you've got a
• 12 Volt supply and
• It's feeding more leds, but you don't know the voltage across leds, and you don't know the current through them
• But there's a resistor and you do know the value of the resistor
• So if that's say for instance a 330 ohm resistor
• 330 Ohm resistor and
• you measure the voltage across that while the LEDs are running and you measure 5 volts and
• To calculate how much current is flowing through that whole circuit
• You would use the formula
• "I" equals "V" over "R". So that's the voltage dropped across the resistor
• Divided by the value of the resistor, which is 330 Ohms
• equals
• so that's a
• 5 volts divided by the 330 Ohm resistor value
• Equals point zero one five so the answer is its drawing about 15 milliamps.
• The 50mA is passing through that whole circuit, so it's useful be able to do it that way. Now with resistors
• there are a couple of variables with them you can choose the
• resistance value say for instance this is a 1 kilohm (1000 ohm) and
• You can also choose the power rating because if you use too small a resistor
• It can actually go up in smoke. Would you like me to demonstrate that? I think you would like me to demonstrate that.
• Let's use this
• Handily placed 10 Ohm resistor. I've got here. Which is just trying to escape, it must know what's about to happen to it.
• So this has a 10 ohm resistor. It's color code is Brown Black Black 1 0 and a
• No zeros at the end, so I'm going to connect it across 12 volts and when I do that
• it's going to grossly exceed its power rating.
• A current of about 1 amp is going to flow through it which means it's going to dissipate about 12 watts while it's only rated
• quarter watt so it's going to be the best part of
• 50 times its rating so let's see what happens.
• It's smoking
• Glowing and it just burst into flames and failed. OK, would you like to see that again?
• Yes, you would
• So let's get another 10 ohm resistor here
• Hook it up, and we'll see it burst into flames again
• Lots of smoke and my workshop is now
• absolutely
• stinking
• So yes, so you have to choose the correct power rating for resistors. How'd you work that out?
• That's where another formula comes in - very simple triangle again
• "P" power
• equals current times
• the voltage
• so say for instance let's choose an example of this
• Interesting 10 watt red, LED which has a voltage
• when it's operating of about nine volts and
• Requires about 1 amp, which you know to give it the power rating of the led itself
• That's the nine volts times 1 amp is nine watts.
• so to calculate if we were to actually put a resistor at 12 volt supply again and
• choose our resistor to limit the
• Current through this to the 1 amp
• So let's see here's the I'll just draw a huge big LED I'm not going to draw what's in it -
• there's a three by three array, but the voltage across that is about nine volts, so we get three volts to drop across the resistor and
• if we go back to the original formula R equals V over I
• We've got three volts divided by the one amp. We need so that's going to be about 3 Ohms
• But to actually work out the power rating of it
• We have to multiply power equals the current through the resistor times the voltage across it, so this has got three volts across it at
• one amp so it's going to dissipate three watts, but we'd actually better choosing a higher power resistor
• And it's not a terribly efficiently way to drive the LED, but it works. It's very very simple and
• I'd probably choose a 5 watt resistor because you want it to stay cool.
• You often see resistors that have just been pushed too far on printed circuit boards. You know they've been
• Designed and they've said I need a 1 watt resistor they use a 1 watt resistor and instead of the nice color code
• It's basically the whole thing is just brown and the circuit board shows heat round it as well.
• So it's good to dissipate - get rid of that heat.
• The colour codes
• This is the color code for resistors
• now a resistor has
• markings on it - in the case of
• This one here this 1000 Ohm resistor. It's got one band here. Which is brown
• It's got a black band actually let's let write it like that
• black
• And it's got another band which is red and then at the end. It's got a band which is gold
• The gold band at the end indicates the tolerance but what's really important for us is the first three bands and this
• The one of them the gold one indicates the tolerance in this case, it's 5% tolerance, and it just means that
• It's going to be within 5% of the - if you measured the resistance of this it's a thousand ohms
• It's going to be you know within 5% of 1000 Ohms
• The color code itself is worked out like this -
• The first line is the first number - the first band is the first number
• so in the case of Brown it means 1 so that's one
• The black means zero and the red means two but the third code is actually a multiplier
• So in the case the red one it means there's two zeros
• two zeros equals 1000 Ohms. If you had a forty seven ohm resistor
• It would be
• yellow for the four
• violet for the Seven
• and then because there are no zeros after that it would be a black band. Yellow violet black would be forty seven ohms.
• If it's going to be a much lower value like four point seven Ohms, you'll get
• Basically a divider either gold or silver
• where the first two digits if it's followed by a gold band it will be a
• first digit point second digit and so for instance four point seven would be a
• Yellow Violet gold and it would be four point seven or for even lower values you
• Can't see if I really come across silver often
• it's zero point and then the first two bands so that would be in the case of the
• four and seven the yellow and violet it would be
• 0.47 Ohms very small value.
• So there are ways to remember this the one I was taught with is:-
• Billy Brown Revives On Your Gin But Values Good Whisky.
• That's basically the colors in sequence the first letter of the colors
• Starting at zero and going up to nine and this is one of these things that
• It seems a bit daunting when you have to remember a color code like this
• But the more you do it the easier it gets and there are really rude ones. I mean
• it's helpful when the first word
• Is actually the color because the first two?
• Letters are "B" unfortunately, so Billy Brown the brown indicated the brown color
• but you also get the really rude one Black Boys Ride Our Young Girls, But Virgins Go Without.
• Which is strangely the rude ones are the easiest ones to remember?
• I mean, I would try and be politically correct and say you must only use really polite ones
• But to be honest the ruder ones. I mean by all means you guys
• If you're familiar with the color code, and you have one that you like to remember things by no matter
• How rude it is within reason put it in the comments down below?
• But the ruder ones are just the easiest to remember and once you've you know
• After you've been using resistors and doing you know reading the color codes for a while
• You'll just end up you'll just look at a resistor and go 1K (1000 ohms) just look at it
• And just instantly know the value
• It's how it is. The same color code is sometimes used on older capacitors, and it's still used on
• inductors which look very much like resistors and
• so
• That's just a summary. I mean, I'm not going to go into too much detail because it would get boring very very quickly
• But this is just the basics of what you need to know how to work out the power
• rating of a resistor if you're driving quite a heavy load with it. In most instances of standard quarter watt resistor is fine and
• How to choose the resistance value to limit current to whatever you want through leds and things that.
• So fundamentally, that's it
• Just hopefully that's sort of helped
• And I've not over complicated it as I sometimes do, and that's put some of the jigsaw pieces together.
• Because as you understand it and as you build stuff with electronics and to be honest the best way to learn electronics is buy kits
• Build them, blow them up. Have little incidents, try and fix them
• Maybe fix them successfully, and that way you'll just suddenly - everything will just fall into place
• and
• You'll suddenly realize that
• Without even noticing it that you suddenly know how all these components work and what they do and how to select them
• It's just a natural thing that evolves over time.